During the second voyage of Christopher Columbus to America in 1499 actual coast of Colombia was divided.  Among his companions there were Alonso de Ojeda, who later in 1509 was sent by the King of Spain  to commence exploration and conquest of actual territory of Colombia. 

Before the Spanish arrived in the 15th century, the territory of Colombia was inhabited by three great tribes. The Chibchan culture lived in high plateau and cold areas of the center of the country and  the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. The Carib culture was located in the littoral of the Atlantic Ocean, and the Arwac culture  populated the regions of Amazone, Putumayo and Caqueta rivers.

In the conquest the King of Spain entitled to each conquistador the right to found colonies and govern their territory under the mission to convert the Indians to Christianity and pay a tribute to the Crown. The founding of this government in 1550 made the beginning of a new period called the Colony. 

Colombia is situated geographically in the center of the former Spanish Colonial Empire and averages everything that was characteristic to the geopolitical, economic and social process in Spanish America between 17th and 19th century.  

During the second part of the 18th century started the discontent against socioeconomic and political order in America that was imposed by the colonizers, followed by revolution lead by Simon Bolivar. Colombia gained independence from Spain on July 20, 1810.